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Homeowner Septic System Checklist
[PDF Format] – This worksheet allows homeowners to keep track of septic system inspections and maintenance. This checklist is included in the booklet above or may also be used separately.
Drinking water pollution: 4,700 gallons of acid spill at Bradford County drilling site.
By Scott Detrow / State Impact / July 5, 2012 | 1:21 PM
There’s been another accident at a northeastern Pennsylvania drilling site: 4,700 gallons of hydrochloric acid spilled at a Leroy Township, Bradford County well pad operated by Chief Oil and Gas on Wednesday
The spil comes two weeks after a thirty-foot methane geyser erupted near a Shell natural gas well in nearby Union Township, Tioga County.
The Department of Environmental Protection is placing preliminary blame on a valve failure. “The acid breached containment and flowed off the well pad,” emailed DEP spokesman Dan Spadoni. “Some of the acid was collected in a sedimentation pond, while the remainder flowed through a field and some reached a small tributary to Towanda Creek causing a minor fish kill. Dams were constructed in the tributary before any acid reached Towanda Creek.”
In a statement, Chief spokeswoman Kristi Gittins said the majority of the acid stayed on the well pad. She estimated up to 800 gallons flowed beyond the drilling site.
Canton Fire Chief Kim Jennings, who also helped lead the cleanup of the Shell methane geyser, says the spill is now under control.
What was hydrochloric acid doing at the site? See next article by State Impact
Update: here’s a statement from Chief Oil and Gas:
- An HCL release of appx 4,700 gallons occurred at appx 1pm on July 4 at the Yoder well site in Leroy Twp, Bradford Co. The release was discovered by personnel on site. DEP and the Bradford County EMS were notified and response measures were implemented.
- It is important to note that the majority of the release, around 4,000 gallons was held to the initial containment area on the pad site. All pad sites are lined with a thick plastic so any inadvertent release of fluids can be remedied at the pad site.
- Appx 700–800 gallons left the initial containment area and traveled into a sediment pond, which is designed as an additional safety measure to contain any runoff from the pad site. Appx 50 gallons left the sediment pond but appears to have remained localized to a small plunge pool next to the sediment pond.
The appropriate clean up crews were quickly dispatched and are on site working. Additional berms of precautionary protection were put in place as crews were neutralizing and vacuuming the pond. The release was quickly contained and cleanup is near completion. After cleanup is complete, any needed remediation efforts will be determined and that work will begin.
There were no drilling or fracking operations taking place at the time of the release. Landowners in the immediate area were notified, however there was never an issue of safety.
The release is under investigation by Frac Tech, Chief and the DEP, but it appears that a valve on the back of the tanker containing the HCL was found partially open which resulted in the release.
There is no evidence that any runoff entered Towanda Creek and all pH readings have been normal. DEP and the Fish and Boat Commission have been on site and, along with Chief, are continuing to monitor. There were a few dead minnows observed, localized in the small plunge pool, but there was no evidence of HCL and normal pH readings and live fish were noted further downstream in the tributary that leads to Towanda Creek. And again, no evidence of any runoff into Towanda Creek. Chief and DEP will continue to take readings and monitor.
Drinking water pollution: Hydrochloric acid’s role in the fracking process.
By Scott Detrow / State Impact / July 6, 2012 | 3:30 PM
A bottle of hydrochloric acid
After news broke that 4,700 gallons of hydrochloric acid spilled at a Chief Oil and Gas drilling pad in Bradford County on Wednesday, several readers emailed StateImpact Pennsylvania to ask why the corrosive agent was being stored at the site.
The answer: hydrochloric acid plays a key role in the hydraulic fracturing process. After the natural gas well’s hole is bored, drillers will pump thousands of gallons of water mixed with acid down into the well. The point, as drilling website FracFocus explains, is to clear out cement debris left over from the drilling stage, and to help open up the underground shale fractures.
After the “acid stage” is complete, drillers inject slickening fluid and sand into the well, in order to flush the natural gas out.
Chief had completed fracking at its Leroy Township Yoder well when the spill took place. A company spokeswoman emails the acid was being stored on-site, waiting to be moved to another drilling location.
How is our drinking water polluted?
State Impact • Featured posts:
- Searching For Savings, Drivers Turn To Natural Gas
- As Shell Works To Stop Methane, Neighboring Farmer Worries About His Cows
- Fracking Disclosure: Colorado’s Compromise Is Pennsylvania’s Controversy
- Tioga County Methane Migration: Onetime Geyser Being Brought Under Control
- Tracking Tioga County Wells With Our Shale Play App
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- The Marcellus Shale, Explained
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” height=”auto”] Hydrochloric acid
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- This page was last modified on 28 June 2012 at 11:34.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Not to be confused with hydrogen chloride.
|Appearance||Colourless, transparent liquid|
|S-phrases||(S1/2), S26, S45|
|n, εr, etc.|
Solid, liquid, gas
|Spectral data||UV, IR, NMR, MS|
Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colourless solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water. It is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. Hydrochloric acid is found naturally in gastric acid.
Historically called muriatic acid, and spirits of salt, hydrochloric acid was produced from vitriol (sulfuric acid) and common salt. It first appeared during the Renaissance, and then it was used by chemists such as Glauber, Priestley and Davy in their scientific research.
With major production starting in the Industrial Revolution, hydrochloric acid is used in the chemical industry as a chemical reagent in the large-scale production of vinyl chloride for PVC plastic, and MDI/TDI for polyurethane. It has numerous smaller-scale applications, including household cleaning, production of gelatin and other food additives, descaling, and leather processing. About 20 million tonnes of hydrochloric acid are produced annually.
Hydrochloric acid was known to European alchemists as spirits of salt or acidum salis (salt acid). Both names are still used, especially in non-English languages, such as German: Salzsäure and Dutch: Zoutzuur. Gaseous HCl was called marine acid air. The old (pre-systematic) name muriatic acid has the same origin (muriatic means “pertaining to brine or salt”), and this name is still sometimes used.
Aqua regia, a mixture consisting of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, prepared by dissolving sal ammoniac in nitric acid, was described in the works of Pseudo-Geber, the 13th-century European alchemist. Other references suggest that the first mention of aqua regia is in Byzantine manuscripts dating to the end of the thirteenth century. The earliest suggested discovery of hydrochloric acid is attributed to the alchemist Jābir ibn Hayyān (c. 800 AD).
Free hydrochloric acid was first formally described in the 16th century by Libavius, who prepared it by heating salt in clay crucibles. Other authors claim that pure hydrochloric acid was first discovered by the German benedictine monk Basil Valentine in the 15th century, by heating common salt and green vitriol, whereas others claim that there is no clear reference to the preparation of pure hydrochloric acid until the end of the sixteenth century.
In the seventeenth century, Johann Rudolf Glauber from Karlstadt am Main, Germany used sodium chloride salt and sulfuric acid for the preparation of sodium sulfate in the Mannheim process, releasing hydrogen chloride gas. Joseph Priestley of Leeds, England prepared pure hydrogen chloride in 1772, and in 1818 Humphry Davy of Penzance, England proved that the chemical composition included hydrogen and chlorine.
During the Industrial Revolution in Europe, demand for alkaline substances increased. A new industrial process by Nicolas Leblanc (Issoundun, France) enabled cheap large-scale production of sodium carbonate (soda ash). In this Leblanc process, common salt is converted to soda ash, using sulfuric acid, limestone, and coal, releasing hydrogen chloride as a by-product. Until the British Alkali Act 1863 and similar legislation in other countries, the excess HCl was vented to air. After the passage of the act, soda ash producers were obliged to absorb the waste gas in water, producing hydrochloric acid on an industrial scale.
In the twentieth century, the Leblanc process was effectively replaced by the Solvay process without a hydrochloric acid by-product. Since hydrochloric acid was already fully settled as an important chemical in numerous applications, the commercial interest initiated other production methods, some of which are still used today. After the year 2000, hydrochloric acid is mostly made by absorbing by-product hydrogen chloride from industrial organic compounds production.
Since 1988, hydrochloric acid has been listed as a Table II precursor under the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances because of its use in the production of heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine.
Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a monoprotic acid, which means it can dissociate (i.e., ionize) only once to give up one H+ ion (a single proton). In aqueous hydrochloric acid, the H+ joins a water molecule to form a hydronium ion, H3O+:
HCl + H2O → H3O+ + Cl−
The other ion formed is Cl−, the chloride ion. Hydrochloric acid can therefore be used to prepare salts called chlorides, such as sodium chloride. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid, since it is essentially completely dissociated in water.
Monoprotic acids have one acid dissociation constant, Ka, which indicates the level of dissociation in water. For a strong acid like HCl, the Ka is large. Theoretical attempts to assign a Ka to HCl have been made. When chloride salts such as NaCl are added to aqueous HCl they have practically no effect on pH, indicating that Cl− is an exceedingly weak conjugate base and that HCl is fully dissociated in aqueous solution. For intermediate to strong solutions of hydrochloric acid, the assumption that H+ molarity (a unit of concentration) equals HCl molarity is excellent, agreeing to four significant digits.
Of the six common strong mineral acids in chemistry, hydrochloric acid is the monoprotic acid least likely to undergo an interfering oxidation-reduction reaction. It is one of the least hazardous strong acids to handle; despite its acidity, it consists of the non-reactive and non-toxic chloride ion. Intermediate-strength hydrochloric acid solutions are quite stable upon storage, maintaining their concentrations over time. These attributes, plus the fact that it is available as a pure reagent, make hydrochloric acid an excellent acidifying reagent.
Hydrochloric acid is the preferred acid in titration for determining the amount of bases. Strong acid titrants give more precise results due to a more distinct endpoint. Azeotropic or “constant-boiling” hydrochloric acid (roughly 20.2%) can be used as a primary standard in quantitative analysis, although its exact concentration depends on the atmospheric pressure when it is prepared.
Hydrochloric acid is frequently used in chemical analysis to prepare (“digest”) samples for analysis. Concentrated hydrochloric acid dissolves many metals and forms oxidized metal chlorides and hydrogen gas, and it reacts with basic compounds such as calcium carbonate or copper(II) oxide, forming the dissolved chlorides that can be analyzed.
Other local Tioga County water pollution news
Shell’s Tioga County Methane Geyser Captured On Video
By Scott Detrow / State Impact / June 28, 2012 | 3:43 PM
A group called the Responsible Drilling Alliance has obtained video of the geyser of water and methane that shot out of the ground last week near a Shell natural gas drilling site in Union Township, Tioga County. Due to the geyser, methane bubbling into a nearby creek and gas spotted in a private water well, Shell issued a voluntary evacuation request to people living within a mile of the well. The Department of Environmental Protection is investigating the incident.
The video was taken on Tuesday, June 19th. RDA’s Ralph Kisberg said the person who filmed the footage wants to remain anonymous, but identified one of the men speaking in the video as Canton Fire Chief Kim Jennings. In a brief phone interview with StateImpact Pennsylvania, Jennings confirmed that fact.
“I’ve never seen a geyser like that,” he said.
The flume gradually decreased in size over the course of the week, as Shell flared off gas at three nearby well clusters to bring down subsurface pressure. Company spokeswoman Kelly op de Weegh said the flow has now completely stopped.
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Drinking Water Contamination