Contaminated Small Drinking Water Supplies and Risk of Infectious Intestinal Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study
This study sought to identify whether elevated risk of infectious intestinal disease (IID) exists in contaminated small water supply consumers compared with consumers drinking from small supplies complying with current standards and whether this effect is modified by age.
Elevated major ions (or salinity) are recognised as being a key contributor to the toxicity of many mine waste waters but the complex interactions between the major ions and large inter-species variability in response to salinity, make it difficult to relate toxicity to causal factors.
On November 8th, the Liberal minister of environment, Catherine McKenna, approved Montreal’s plan to dump 8 billion liters of untreated sewage into the St. Lawrence River.
Coliform Bacteria as Indicators of Diarrheal Risk in Household Drinking Water: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Current guidelines recommend the use of Escherichia coli (EC) or thermotolerant (“fecal”) coliforms (FC) as indicators of fecal contamination in drinking water. Despite their broad use as measures of water quality, there remains limited evidence for an association between EC or FC and diarrheal illness: a previous review found no evidence for a link between diarrhea and these indicators in household drinking water.
Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern, placing considerable importance on the accuracy of indicators used to characterize and map water scarcity worldwide. We improve upon past efforts by using estimates of blue water footprints (consumptive use of ground- and surface water flows) rather than water withdrawals, accounting for the flows needed to sustain critical ecological functions and by considering monthly rather than annual values.
Dissemination of Drinking Water Contamination Data to Consumers: A Systematic Review of Impact on Consumer Behaviors
Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities) to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes.
Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories.
Unusually warm ocean water has caused a huge algae bloom along the west coast of the United States. Also known as “Red Tide” or harmful algae blooms (HABs), Domoic acid has severely impacted marine life, shutting down most of California’s crab fisheries.
The Fundão dam, operated by the mining company Samarco, collapsed first and spilled into the Santarém dam and waste from both began to flow to nearby cities and into a vital river. The toxic mud wave, which has been slowly traveling down the Rio Doce for several weeks, has now reached the Atlantic, adding a dangerous mix of arsenic, zinc, copper, mercury, and other substances to the water during its 500-kilometer journey.
Citizens of Bangladesh have been suffering from the consequences of arsenic poisoning for years. This situation is often referred to as one of the largest mass poisonings of all time.
Awareness of the presence of a cryptosporidium microbial parasite occurred when traces were identified in one of United Utilities’ many water treatment plants in Preston, England, which mainly affected parts of the Lancashire region. According to their estimates, about 2,500 miles of pipeline were contaminated.