A relatively short list of reference viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens appears adequate to assess microbial risks and inform a system-based management of drinking waters.
A Large Community Outbreak of Gastroenteritis Associated with Consumption of Drinking Water Contaminated by River Water, Belgium, 2010
On 6 December 2010 a fire in Hemiksem, Belgium, was extinguished by the fire brigade with both river water and tap water. Local physicians were asked to report all cases of gastroenteritis. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among 1000 randomly selected households. The results support the hypothesis that a point-source contamination of the tap water with river water was the cause of the multi-pathogen waterborne outbreak.
Drinking water contaminated by wastewater is a potential source of exposure to mammary carcinogens and endocrine disrupting compounds from commercial products and excreted natural and pharmaceutical hormones. These contaminants are hypothesized to increase breast cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study to investigate whether exposure to drinking water contaminated by wastewater increases the risk of breast cancer. Results did not provide evidence of an association between breast cancer and drinking water contaminated by wastewater.
Presently, water contamination issues are of great concern worldwide. Mexico has not escaped this environmental problem, which negatively affects aquifers, water bodies and biodiversity; but most of all, public health.
Do Contaminants Originating from State-of-the-Art Treated Wastewater Impact the Ecological Quality of Surface Waters?
This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated impact on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in urban areas this would lead to: (i) improvement of the ecological integrity, (ii) reduction of biodiversity loss, and (iii) faster achievement of objectives of legislative requirements, e.g., the European Water Framework Directive.
Shigellosis Outbreak Associated with Contaminated Well Water in a Rural Elementary School: Sichuan Province, China, June 7–16, 2009
This investigation of shigellosis outbreak in an elementary school in Sichuan Province, China, identified the source of infection, mode of transmission and risk factors for illness, and concluded that this shigellosis outbreak was caused by drinking untreated water from a well polluted by Shigella flexneri 2b.
Self-Reported Household Impacts of Large-Scale Chemical Contamination of the Public Water Supply, Charleston, West Virginia, USA
A January 2014 industrial accident contaminated the public water supply of approximately 300,000 homes in and near Charleston, West Virginia (USA) with low levels of a strongly-smelling substance consisting principally of 4-methylcyclohexane methanol (MCHM). We conclude that the spill had major economic impact with substantial numbers of individuals reporting incident-related illnesses and psychological distress. Authorities were successful supplying emergency drinking water, but less so with risk communication.
Source Apportionment and Risk Assessment of Emerging Contaminants: An Approach of Pharmaco-Signature in Water Systems
This paper presents a methodology based on multivariate data analysis for characterizing potential source contributions of emerging contaminants (ECs) detected in 26 river water samples across multi-scape regions during dry and wet seasons.
There is substantial concern that microbial and nutrient pollution by cattle on public lands degrades water quality, threatening human and ecological health.
This study explored the combined effects of Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water using flow cytometry (FCM).